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John C. Herschbach b. Lee b.
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Polanyi b. Herschbach is now Frank B. Baird, Jr. Because of scheduling difficulties, the meeting with Dudley Herschbach took place in a noisy lobby at Logan Airport in the evening of July 23, The location of the conversation with John Polanyi, on Tuesday, August 1,was his quiet office but his schedule was only slightly less busy than Logan Airport.
However, the conversations were very pleasant and informative in both cases. The interview with Professor Polanyi is augmented here by the brief speech he gave at the Stockholm City Hall on the occasion of the Nobel Prize ceremonies in December Polanyi JP : I wish I knew.
The beginnings of reaction dynamics, in which I was involved, hardly required penetrating insights into molecular structure, since the rules were being established for reactions in which an linus pauling anti aging attacked a diatomic molecule.
The type of question being asked was, does the atom approach the diatom along the axis of the two atoms or at right angles to that axis? What sort of forces does the atom feel, as it approaches? Is it immediately trying to climb over an energy barrier?
When does it start to feel some attraction, as the new chemical bond begins to form? In fact, whatever the reaction, we directed our attention to the attacking atom and to the two atoms that constituted the bond under attack. IH: Does the reaction dynamics approach now extend to complicated molecules? Our finding was that most of the interesting things were related to the bond that was being formed and to the bond that was being broken.
If you start to hang complex structures on the attacking species or on the species under attack, the focus of your attention remains on the atoms that comprise the bond being formed and those that comprise the bond being broken.
As reaction dynamics invades organic chemistry, where more intricate rearrangements are observed, this will cease to be so true. IH: At the end of your Nobel lecture, as if projecting into the future, you mentioned two directions.
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One was transition-state spectroscopy and the other was surface aligned photochemistry. That was nine years ago. Was this a prediction? JP: It was in a sense, because both these fields were very much in their infancy. The question was, how far would they go? As it turns out, both of them are maturing today in a very satisfying way. I was involved with both early on. In the case of transition-state spectroscopy, we had the idea that we could see the very short-lived intermediate between reagents and products by means of something like line broadening.
The spectral line broadening would be due to the strong repulsion for a paradis fiscal suisse anti aging of a millionth of a second s between the pair of particles that were in the process of separating as reaction products.
This was a beginning to a field that has matured in surprising and marvellous ways. One way is due to Neumark and his co-workers at the University of California, Linus pauling anti aging, who obtain the transition states of chemical reactions not by bringing the reagents together but by first forming a negative ion incorporating them and then removing an electron.
It plunges you right into the heartland of a chemical reaction. Another approach is well advanced in the laboratory of Zewail and co-workers at Cal Tech and involves the use of femtosecond lasers to actually clock the reaction as it passes through the transition state.
Ortomolekuláknak is hívhatjuk őket, tehát jó hatásúak a szervezetre. Az optimális egészség érdekében "a megfelelő molekulák, megfelelő mennyiségben" elképzelés híve volt a kétszeres Nobel-díjas Linus Pauling professzor is. Méregtelenítésben a méregtelenítő enzimek használják mint pl. A szelén és molibdén erősítik a méregtelenítő enzimeket. A méregtelenítő rendszer jelentős átfedésben van az antioxidáns védelmi "antiox" és redox szabályozási "redox" rendszerekkel.
Again a fabulous development. Neither of those things was anticipated. The way new fields are born is as a consequence, first of all, of a surmise that there is something new that can now be done. In the case of transition-state spectroscopy, the surmise was that one could study the interaction of light with the very short-lived collocation of atoms that we are talking about here.
These are subpicosecond collocations which constitute the successive intermediate configuration between reagents and products. As it turned out, it could be done in much better ways than were initially dreamed of. So much for transition-state spectroscopy, a field in which I am still enthusiastically involved.
There are quite a number of machines in my laboratory devoted, as in the past, to getting information about the motions of newly born reaction products. But if you start with your reagents in the absorbed state on a single crystal, the forces that adsorb them also order them.
Then you trigger the reaction by sending a pulse of light through the ordered species. The reaction now starts to unfold, that is to say, the dancers start to engage in their dance. The novelty is that they have started their movements this time from defined positions, marked by chalk on the stage. If you a legjobb arckrémek at their unfolding motions following this ordered start, it should now be easier to infer what they did in the transition state, which is the most mysterious and interesting stage linus pauling anti aging a chemical reaction.
IH: Do calculations parallel the experiments? JP: Our work has always included experiment and theory proceeding in parallel.
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In the same paper we report the calculations the theory of the initial geometry of the molecular species, linus pauling anti aging we then check experimentally with polarized infrared spectroscopy. We then simulate the action of the light theoretically by considering the effect of changing a bond into an antibond. Our theoretical molecule flies apart. Next the classical and quantal equations of motion are used to predict the outcome.
Finally, and crucially, we compare the computed outcome in terms of energy distributions and angular distributions with those we measure in the lab.
This to-and-fofro between theory and experiment has been typical of our modus operandi. IH: Linus pauling anti aging molecules are involved in such a study?
JP: The simplest ones are hydrogen halides. We just had a discussion in this room, before you came in, about hydrogen iodide adsorbed on lithium fluoride and on sodium fluoride. Even a perfect Crystal will have, therefore, a rather rough surface. When we change our surface to sodium fluoride, we are changing the unit-cell size.
In each case we adsorbed the same molecule, which is HI at the moment. Another variable, as I was saying, is the coverage. If these molecules are the reagents for some photoreaction, then, with changing coverage, they change their relative orientation.
Why does this matter? Because we have a basis for expecting the outcome of the chemical reaction to change with orientation, and hence it must change between low coverage and high.
In a sense the crystal is catalyzing the photoreaction.
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More interesting still, this is geometrical catalysis, brought about by aiming things differently. It is a form of catalysis that should be of particular interest to people in the dynamics community, like myself. We have been discussing the effect of different arrangements and alignments of molecules on chemical reactions for decades.
Now we are developing a means of manipulating our reagent species by adsorbing them on different surfaces and with different coverages on a given surface so as to produce different alignments and arrangements at will.
IH: Apparently, you are a public figure in Canada.
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My experience is that one can readily get access to senior politicians. The real question is, can one get them to listen? I would claim that if you make a sufficiently cogent argument, they will have to listen. I think we scientists have some training in organizing our thoughts and in trying to persuade difficult audiences.
In fact. What they do is to tear it apart.
In science we arrive at the truth through an adversarial dialogue. In the past, it is true, we were frightened to speak out on larger issues. As with most criticisms, there is something to this one. We do have to be careful about this. We have to explain what our expertise is. But were we to take the opposite view that science is a sort of priesthood and that to keep it in high esteem we must keep it pure by ensuring that no scientist or group of scientists meddles in things outside their own discipline, then we would be involved in a different sort of linus pauling anti aging.
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The fact is that science is having a colossal effect on the world scene, and as a result we cannot responsibly opt out of the debate on world affairs.
Earlier today, I had somebody in here who wanted to talk about the fiftieth anniversary of the dropping of the first atomic bomb in Japan.
I was 16 in when that bomb was dropped. Though it came at the end of a huge and terrible war, it was a transforming moment in other respects, too. My own thinking was deeply affected by it, as it should have been. It transformed, for example, the relations between nations. But it was only one of a whole series of technological changes, to which we scientists have contributed, that have changed the world.
It would be irresponsible, therefore, for us not to be involved in the debate that follows. Often, all that we have been able to contribute has been technological solutions. But even these can have tremendous impact. I have, for example, been involved in a lot of arms control discussions with Russian scientists.
They way perhaps seem peripheral now, but at the time two colossal adversaries were threatening each other and the world. The danger of the arms race was very real. We explained in some detail how we could do it.
By clearing the way on the technological level, one has an undoubted influence on the way history unfolds. Was your father your teacher? JP: Formally he was my teacher for one year.
I entered Manchester University in when I was He lectured to me in the first year.
That was the last year he lectured in science. Then he transferred to philosophy. He also taught me a great deal in conversations despite my many absences away from home, first in boarding school and then for three years as an evacuee in Canada. Most of what he taught me about physical chemistry I learned at one remove from him. I was a student for six years in the Department that he had shaped in Manchester. My professor Meredith Evans, was one of his favorite students, and my Ph.
Without those things I would have been lost. IH: When you speak about transition-state spectroscopy, it seems to me to have a close relationship to Michael Polanyi. He would have thought it far-fetched that one might get light to interact with this subpicosecond entity which is neither reagents nor products. Polanyi, Michael Polanyi, and Eugene P. Evans on his right Photos courtesy Professor J. Polanyi I find myself now at the age of 66 engaged with linus pauling anti aging excitement in some novel experiments in which we are trying to look at transition states for sodium-atom reactions.