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A remarkably fine steam-boat, the Zriny, which had just been launched, was about to make her first voyage, and we gladly availed ourselves of the opportunity to get down to Moldova.
A trial of her powers had VOL. Count Széchenyi, by directing this little pleasure-trip, to which every one was admitted on paying a zwanziger ten- pencehad managed to interest a great number of persons in the success of the new boat; no small matter where steam navigation is still a novelty, and where it was met with countless prejudices which are but yet disappearing.
I think I know directors of companies, who would have preferred private tickets, and a party of their own friends ; by which, of course, all the excluded would have been offended. Which was the wiser system I leave my readers to decide. We joined the party to Waitzen, and had an opportunity of seeing the first meeting of two steam-boats which ever took place on the waters of the Danube.
The Pannónia was returning from Presburg, and met us near the termination of our voyage.
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Count Széchenyi, who was on board the Zriny, was recognised and loudly cheered by both crews, on the occasion of this new advance to giardin suisse anti aging accomplishment of his favourite scheme. I giardin suisse anti aging the Count's voice faltered, and his eye grew moist, as he exclaimed, " Now I am sure we shall suc ceed, and Hungary will not be for ever a stranger to Europe. This regularity is likely enough to make a change in the national character of all the Danubian popula tions, at least in respect to punctuality.
After one of the fairs, when the steam-boats first began to ply between Semlin and Pest, a large party of Servian and Turkish merchants had taken then- places on board, in order to return to Belgrade, and were duly informed that the vessel would start at five. As this did not happen to suit these wor thy people's habits, and as they had no idea that the boat would leave without them, they marched solemnly down to the quay about eight, and, after walking up and down for some time in search of the vessel, they were at last made to understand that she had gone three hours before.
Their as tonishment and consternation are said to have been most ludicrous; but it was not without its effect, for none of these people have been too late for the steam-boat from that day to this. Our party in the Zriny was small, but exceed ingly agreeable ; the Baroness W and her ami able and pretty daughter, Count Széchenyi on his way to superintend the works near Orsova, two of our own countrymen bound for Constantinople, and ourselves, formed almost the whole of the passengers.
The morning was cold and misty, but it soon cleared up into a fine autumn day. On the Pest side, the country is one continued flat, and on the other, the low hills, which extend for B 2 some distance from the Blocksberg, soon disappear altogether, and a level plain extended on every side. It would be useless to describe the whole of our route. The scenery has little variety.
The flat plain is sometimes raised into small sand-hills covered with vines, the thick woods are sometimes broken by a little pasture and corn-land surrounding a village or small town ; the banks are generally low ; the river itself deep, wide, and less rapid than above, indeed in every respect much better calculated for navigation ; but, for the rest, a mono tonous uniformity pervaded the whole of our first day's journey.
The number of islands in this part of the Danube is very great ; some of them of considerable extent, others serving only to ornament the river.
As they are mostly low, they are but of little value; the smaller ones are chiefly in wood, the larger are partly swamp and partly pasture. Floating water- mills mark the approach to almost every village. The only craft we met, except the small canoes of the peasants, and the flat-bottomed boats which, on the firing of a gun, came to giardin suisse anti aging off passengers, were the long barge-like vessels from Szegedin.
These are clean-built boats, covered in with a kind of deck, and chiefly employed in bringing up corn from the country of the Theiss and Temes to Pest and Vienna. They are commonly towed up the stream by men or horses. Accidents are very com mon among these men ; and it is no rare thing to see the body of a man or horse floating down the Danube. The body is probably allowed to proceed to the Black Sea, without any one thinking it worth while to interrupt its course or inquire the cause of death.
None of the towns or villages passed during the first day presented anything worthy of remark ; their white-washed cottages and steeples had a look of cleanliness which the interior would hardly bear out, I fear.
We saw a great number of wild-fowl at different times. The ducks were in immense flocks; and hawks, particularly a white species, very plentiful. Of the pelicans, which are so common lower down, we saw none ; nor did we observe any of the white herons, which yield the beautiful aigrettes, though they are said to be pretty frequent.
The solitary beaver, which is common enough above Vienna, is rarely or never found in Hungary. We were told that, on the east bank, the immense tract of land, extending much further than we could see, is almost useless, from the wet and boggy state in which it is allowed to lie.
It is calculated that by embankments and canals it might be all reclaimed at the cost of about four shillings an acre ; and, at the lowest calculation, it would let for as much iter annum.
The chief proprietors are not above six in number. One has got no money to begin giardin suisse anti aging ; another has already more corn than he can sell ; and a third likes to let things remain as they are : and so land, which would maintain a million of men, is left to grow leeches and to breed fevers.
Were it not that one set of bad laws renders the title to purchased property so insecure, and another set makes the sale of corn often im possible, of course foreign capital would soon remedy such evils as these. At Baja, to our no small regret, the ladies left us. Carriages were in waiting ; a host of depend ants were there to kiss their hands and welcome them home ; and, as we passed giardin suisse anti aging, a cloud of dust hid them from our sight, though it did not drive them from our memories.
Soon after leaving Baja, we passed through a canal, cut a few years since to avoid a long and difficult winding of the river. As it was getting dusk, I had retired to the cabin to write up my journal : when, soon after we had quitted the canal, a sudden shock threw everything about with great violence, and brought us all on deck to know what was the matter.
We found the boat aground, with her prow high and dry on shore. It was altogether a sad bungle. In such a light, some one should have been a-head to look out.
Fortunately no harm was done; but it prevented us from going on during the night, which had been Count Széchenyi's first intention. We accordingly came to anchor at Mohács about eight o'clock, having run one hun dred and eighty miles in fifteen hours.
This was the first voyage the captain had ever made ; and he was dismissed immediately on his return. I mention this fact, because it shows with what care the interests of the public are watched over by this company : indeed, were it otherwise, it would be impossible to conceive how they could have escaped for so many years under all the disadvantages of a new undertaking, without a single serious accident. Had any loss of life oc curred during the first year or two, it is very possible Government, in its paternal carefulness, would at once have stopped the whole affair.
To avoid such a catastrophe, no engines have been employed but those of Bolton and Watt ; nor any engineers but those brought up and recommended by the same house. They have been treated, too, in the most liberal manner.
The captains, likewise, are generally very superior men ; and it is im possible not to admire the consideration with which Count Széchenyi behaves towards them. They are frequently invited to his table, consulted on every point of difficulty, and their opinions listened to 8 MOHÁCS.
It is by such means that steam navigation on the Danube has been, at its very commencement, brought to a degree of perfection which it has required many years' experience to effect in other countries. Mohács, otherwise an insignificant town, has witnessed two of the most important battles ever fought in Europe ; important not only from the number of the combatants, but from their political results.
The first of them, inwhich witnessed the slaughter of a king, seven bishops, five hun dred nobles, and twenty thousand soldiers, not only laid open the whole country to the inroads of the Turks, and established them for nearly a century and a half in its capital, but changed the reigning dynasty of Hungary, and introduced for the first time a German sovereign to the Hungarian throne. By the same blow too Transylvania was separated from Hungary, and remained so for many years. The second, inundid much of what the first had done : it concluded the splendid victories of the Duke of Lorraine gigi szemránckrém vélemények the Turks ; it opened Transylvania to the Hungarian troops; and prepared the way for the expulsion of the Moslem, which a few years later was finally effected.
After taking in a supply of coals, obtained in this neighbourhood, and said to be of a pretty good quality, we again got our paddles giardin suisse anti aging motion and went gaily on our way. In Hungary, before steam-boats were introduced, there was only one coal-mine known in the whole country. In the short space of time which has elapsed since their first establishment, three others and of better quality have been disco vered along the valley of the Danube alone,—that of Count Sándor between Presburg and Pest, an other in the neighbourhood of Mohács, and the best of all at Oráwitza near Moldova.
There is a bad law in Hungary, which giardin suisse anti aging the cutting down of forests on the plea of maintaining a supply of fire-wood. Of course it is vain to expect a full developement of the mineral riches of the country until this law is abolished. Our second day's route became rather less mono tonous. About twelve we passed the embouchure of the Drave, which has all the appearance of a fine navigable river.
At present the Drave is little used, but it is impossible not to foresee a brilliant future for it. Extending from the centre of Hun giardin suisse anti aging along the north of Sclavonia and Croatia, and through the whole of Styria, it brings into connec tion populations so far removed Svájci öregedésgátló tudós sea-ports that water-carriage cannot fail to offer them advantages of which a few years will teach them to avail them selves.
The scenery was occasionally varied by a ruined castle, or a slight elevation giardin suisse anti aging the surface of the plain, of which the peasants eagerly avail them selves and form into vineyards. From the mouth of the Drave we have been passing, on the west, the banks of Sclavonia, which appears a rich and highly cultivated country.
The people are, like the Croa- tians of a Sclavish race, and belong exclusively to the Greek and Catholic Churches. I believe the only difference between these provinces and the rest of Hungary, at the present time, is their power of excluding Protestants from the possession of land or the enjoyment of any privileges within their boundaries. At Vukovar we stopped to land some handsome furniture from Vienna. It is said to be astonishing how much furniture and how many carriages have been sent from Pest and Vienna, not only to the southern parts of Hungary, but into Wallachia and Turkey, since the steam-boats have been establish ed.
The monastery at Vukovar has a pretty ap pearance from the river. The town produces some silk. A short turn of the river now giardin suisse anti aging us in view of the ruins of Scherengrad ; and, a little further on, we came to the castle of Illok a large building, though apparently somewhat neglected.
It be longs, as well as immense estates here, to Prince Odescalchi. It became so anti aging por about seven, that, to avoid accidents, we dropped our anchor opposite O Futak for the night.
We were scarcely awake next morning when we were roused up to see the fortress of Peter- wardein. Directly above our heads, with cur tains, bastions, and towers grinning with artillery after the most approved fashion, was the hill of Peterwardein, and on the opposite side a tête du pont, and other hard-named outworks in great abundance.
Though modern fortifications have very little architectural beauty to boast, the fine situation of this gives it a commanding effect. Peterwardein is, I believe, considered strong; and occupies a position of considerable military im portance. It is adapted to contain ten thousand men. Neusatz, on the opposite side, chiefly inhabited by Greeks, is an important commercial town.
A long bend of the river to the north brought us to Karlowitz, a pretty little town situated at the foot of a hill covered with vines down to its very base.
A celebrated wine is made here by a mix ture of red and white grapes, which from its pecu liar colour is called Schiller. Karlowitz is the seat of the chief of the non- united Greek church in Hungary, and contains a lyceum and theological school of that religion. I need scarcely add that it is from this place the celebrated peace of takes its name. It is navigable for steam vessels the whole of that extent. We met the Giardin suisse anti aging the First, the steamer, on this station, returning from Moldova heavily laden with wool, but carrying few passengers.
They say the back-freights consist principally of wool, honey, iron, tobacco, and wine ; while those down are almost entirely composed of manufactured goods. They have been offered freights of fat pigs from Servia, but have been obliged to decline them till they get some tug-boats at work.
Pigs form a very important article of trade between Servia and Vienna ; the immense oak-woods, with which that country is covered, being used almost exclusively for feeding those animals. The Servian pig is a beautiful creature ; and I doubt if Smithfield could show better shapes or better feeding in this particu lar than the market of a Servian village.
As we approached Semlin the banks became more flat ; and the river, which had hitherto not averaged giardin suisse anti aging than a quarter of a mile in width, acquired a more extended bed. Semlin is one of those localities which Nature herself has marked out for the position of a town. Count Széchenyi tells us that the Save is navigable, and he feels sure it will very soon have its steam-boats as well as the Danube.
From the day of their esta blishment Semlin may date a new birth. It is at present chiefly supported by its intercourse with Servia, on the opposite bank of the Save ; and in consequence, the majority of its ten thousand inhabitants belong to that nation. It contains some tolerable streets in the interior, but the part near the Danube looks as miserable as need be ; indeed, the greater portion visible from the steam-boat is the gipsy town, a collection of mud huts on the side of the hill.
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Until the establishment of steam boats, Semlin was the usual starting-point for Con stantinople ; and it was here that quarantine was performed on returning. It is still used by the couriers ; but travellers generally prefer the com fort of a steam-boat to the hardships of a Tatár excursion across the Balkan. Semlin is historically memorable as the Mala Villa of the first crusaders. The three hundred thousand of the dregs of Europe, who had terrified all Germany with their frightful excesses, at last approached the frontiers of Hungary.
When the larger body, under the guidance of Peter the Hermit, arrived, and heard of this mishap, they determined to revenge it by the destruction of Semlin and its garrison of four thousand men.
So infamous a treachery soon drew on the crusaders the rage of a people who, but half converted, had not yet learned to hate with due cordiality all who differed from them in faith ; and Peter and his followers thought themselves fortunate to escape as best they could across the Danube. Volkmar, with twelve thousand Bohemians, who had advanced no farther than Neutra, were cut to pieces.
Of the fifteen thousand Germans who followed the priest Gott- schalk, scarcely three thousand escaped the arrows of the Hungarians ; while the two hundred thou sand rabble of both sexes and of every age, which brought up the rear under Emiko, panic-struck at the fate of their companions, broke up their camp before the King of Hungary could approach Giardin suisse anti aging risch Altenburg, which they were besieging, and dispersed without having even approached the object of their fanatic veneration.
It required nothing less than the noble courage, the frankness, and the piety of Godefroy de Bouillon to re-esta blish a respect for the crusaders or their religion in the minds of the half pagan Hungarians.
Since steam has brought so many strangers down the Danube, Austria has begun to establish the system of passports here ; giardin suisse anti aging, if the Hungarians do not look to it they themselves will soon feel its annoyance as well as the foreigners who visit them.
A few minutes after we quitted Semlin, the guns were got ready and we fired a salute to the garrison of Belgrade, which was returned in due form. This ceremonious politeness to Belgrade seemed rather a testimony of respect to what it had been, than to what it now is, for its glory is sadly fallen. Its hill is still covered with walls, and gates, and towers; but the walls are half down, the gates open, and the towers dismantled. A Pasha still sits in its fortress, but he could no longer defy the best troops of Europe from his stronghold.
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As we passed, a few Turks were seen lying lazily along the banks of the river ; others were watering their horses ; while, a little further on, a group of Servian women were washing, up to their knees in the water. The town of Belgrade, which lies beyond the fortress, has a very beautiful appearance, from the number of minarets and domes peeping from out the dark cypresses by which they are sur rounded. This was the first glimpse I had ever caught of a minaret, and I can scarcely express the pleasure it gave me ; it was something so new, and yet so familiar.
The Hungarian never uses the sail, the only means of moving against the stream he is acquainted with is towing : and, though he has seen the sail employed for so many centuries on the op posite side of the same river, he has never thought of applying it himself.
It was curious enough to see the Hungarian, Turkish, and English systems of navigation in use giardin suisse anti aging the same moment : upwards of forty men were toiling to drag a huge barge against a strong stream on the Hungarian bank ; on the Servian, the lattine sail bore the Turkish boat gaily before the wind ; while, in the middle, the glorious invention of Watt urged on the magnificent Zriny, and threatened to swallow up the crazy craft of the giardin suisse anti aging in her wake.
One might have fancied three ages of the world in presence of each other at the same moment. A new feature in the landscape, and for us a new object of wonder and inquiry, soon caught our eyes. All along the Hungarian bank, at certain distances, perhaps half a mile ajmrt, were small buildings, sometimes made of wood, and raised on posts, or in other situations, mere mud huts, before each of which stood a sentry on duty.
They were the stations of the Hungarian military frontier guard. An institution of so extraordinary a character as that on which we had now fallen, demands a few words of explanation.
The polychromatic and mixed media collages pervaded by a playful and ironic vein, constitute the symbol of the Milan-born artist's satirical vein: the dismembering of form to express the deflagration of matter and imagery. With "Epater le robot" and "Mannequins Manichini " Baj stepped up criticism of contemporary society and the indiscriminate use of technology, while with "Metamorphosis and metaphors Metamorfosi e metafore ", "Mythology of Kitsch Mitologia del Kitsch " and "Garden of delights Il giardino delle delizie " he denounced the corruption of taste brought about by the culture of industrial products.
From a very early period the banks of the Save and Danube, from their frontier position, were in fested by bands of Servians and others, who lived in a great measure by war and plunder : many of these were fugitives from the neighbouring coun tries, and were received by the Hungarians on condition of defending the frontier on which they lived from further incursions. Before the first battle of Mohács, we hear of some öregedésgátló gyógyszer 2020 adó having been made to form these borderers into regiments on one or two points ; as the Turks retired and left the frontiers more free, this organization was extended to the newly acquired regions ; and, when at last the whole line fell into the hands of Austria, it was rendered com plete, and reduced to a regular system.
The last part organized was the Transylvanian borders, which did not take place till G. The system, there fore, is one which has grown out of the wants of the VOL. The object has been to giardin suisse anti aging at the least pos sible cost a border guard along the whole Turkish frontier of Hungary, which in peace might be em ployed for the purposes of quarantine and customs, and in war serve as a portion of the standing army.
This has been effected so perfectly, that in peace nearly forty thousand men do duty along an extent of eight hundred miles of frontier ; and they not only feed and clothe themselves, but pay heavy taxes in money besides, and perform also a consi derable quantity of labour without pay.
In time of war this guard can furnish, on an emergency, two hundred thousand men in arms. The land acquired by Government, by purchase or exchange, along the whole of this district, has been divided among the inhabitants, and is held as fiefs on the tenure of military and civil service.
A portion of land comprising from thirty-six to fifty acres constitutes an entire fief, the half or quarter constituting half and quarter fiefs. Each of these is bound to furnish, and to giardin suisse anti aging and clothe, according to its size, one or more men-at-arms.